Influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the schools of nursing in Anambra south zone of Anambra state

By Okonkwo, Chinenye MaryRose PDE/2020/453

A research project presented to school of education federal college of education (technical), Umunze Anambra state in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of professional diploma in education

Abstract

The study investigated influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the Schools of Nursing in Anambra South Zone of Anambra State. Four research questions were stated to guide the study and four null hypotheses tested at 0.5 level of significance. Descriptive survey design was adopted. The population for the study comprised 610 which are made up of all the 7 nursing schools with 7 principals and 603 year two nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra south zone. The sample size for the study is 188. A proportionate random sampling technique was used to sample all the 7 nursing schools with 7 principal and 181 year two nursing students in Anambra South zone that was used for the study which is about 30% of the total population. The research instruments that was used for the study is questionnaire. The questionnaire titled “Home Environment Academic Achievement Questionnaire (HEAAQ)” was made up of section A and B. The section A was used to elicit data on the demographic variables of the respondents while the section B consists of 32 items which was used to elicit data for the study to answer the Research Questions. The questionnaire was made up of four response rating scale options of strongly agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD). The t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, any mean item whose mean fell below 2.50 was disagreed on while those from 2.50 and above were agreed on. However, if the calculated t-test is less than the critical value, the null hypothesis was accepted but if calculated t-test is higher than the critical value, the null hypothesis was not accepted. The reliability index of the questionnaire yielded a reliability co-efficient index of 0.76. The result of the finding shows that, family size can influence the academic achievement of nursing students, students from large families are given little or no attention by their parents, parents with large families find it difficult to pay their children school fees and it affects them in school and students from larger families have lower levels of education are the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone. Recommendations were made which includes: Parents should improve their income so as to be able to provide the necessary reading material to their children and illiterate parents should be encouraged to go to school, in that their literacy will enhance their children academic achievement in schools.

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

In this section

Background to the Study

The family as a primary agent of socialization is the first institution where a child identifies himself. According to Ezewu (2014) a child’s mental capacity and emotional behavior are necessary ingredients for school education and these are greatly influenced by the type of home an individual comes from. It is pertinent, therefore, to state that the school should not be regarded as a closed community. A child cannot acquire knowledge, attitude and skills in isolation from home and social influences. In present day Nigeria, some homes have learnt that the best place to channel their income is in education of their children. With this understanding the educated parents try to maintain their status by ensuring that their children are even more educated than themselves; while the less educated families try their utmost best to see that their children do not experience the unpleasant consequences of illiteracy, ignorance and low social status which have engulfed them (Onyejiaka, 2013). In other words, the importance of education as a catalyst of progress has come to be recognized by many people. The presence or absence of knowledge has determine the faith of individuals and even countries especially in science and technology which is yet to be developed in Nigeria.

According to Ogbemudia and Aiasa (2013), the parents or guidance of students are responsible for providing the right home environment that will facilitate effective learning for their wards. Furthermore, in students’ home environment some factors that influence their academic performance include parental educational background, parental economic status (At least an average financial status), parental marital status and parental home location. In assessing the parental marital status on students academic achievement, much attention will be given to sound human relations, as the home environment that is tensed due to divorce or unhealthy atmosphere of quarrelling, fighting due to polygamy cannot favour learning in the home as the mind of the students will not be settled in order to give room for creativity. Education is very vital in human existence because the society and education are interrelated and inter-dependent. This can also be seen in the nature and development of children in a given society. The school is an umbrella governing children from different parental background and social background and as such the children learning and rate of academic development is closely related to experience. The students’ achievement in school is determined by environment in which the child finds him or herself. In a home environment, different factors can be found, which include social, economic, psychological, cultural genetic environmental and emotional.

Nursing is an applied academic and practice orientated profession with an emphasis on knowledge and skills for patient care and the purpose of pre-registration nurse education is to prepare nurses who are ‘fit-for-practice’. However, newly or on-training nurses do not possess some of the necessary knowledge and skills to enable them to perform some essential skills for patient care (Runciman & Holloway, 2018). This lack of knowledge and skill creates difficulties and stress for the nurse in an already complex experience, i.e. that of new employment (Casey, 2017). This is a crucial time period in a newly or on-training nurses career and can sometimes determine whether or not he/she remains in the profession (Buchan 2015). Nursing education would not only make an individual knowledgeable and productive but also equip him to function, create and modify his society with a view to making it more habitable (Umeh, 2013). Nursing education is more than training in specified skills; it must be a way of developing the all-round abilities of the individual, inculcating desirable attitudes to productive life and establishing worthy social and political ideals (Eyibe, 2016).

It is against this background that the National Board for Nursing Education (N.B.N.E, 2010) diversified nursing schools curricular and emphasis is placed on developing critical decision-making skills, exercising independent nursing judgment and acquiring professional values and research skills. Although nursing research, nursing management, and community health are often cited as skills germ. These courses / subjects are expected to advance the scope of learning in these nursing schools and colleges, arm the students with more practical skills and bring their training and activities in line with the new National Policy on Education as it affects Nursing Education. This can only be achieved in a positive environment in which educational facilities, motivation and encouragement are provided both at home and in the school. According to Abubakar (2010), the education which a child receives from his or her parents is most likely to have a highly significant and dominant effect on his behaviour in his later life invariably what the child learns at home and how his family motivates him toward education contributes to the child’s success or failure at school. The environment plays a very remarkable role in the life of every individual and the educational aspect is also affected. There are home environmental factors such as: parents level of education, occupation and socio-economic status, family size and type, motivation and possession of certain facilities at home etc which influence the student’s academic performance. In this study we are to discuss and examine some of these factors in detail as they affect student achievement in school.

Statement of the Problem

The primary environment of a student is the home and it stands to exert tremendous impact on the students’ achievements. Presently, some homes have learnt that the best place to channel their income is in the education of their children. With this in mind, the educated parents try to maintain their status by ensuring that their children are even more educated than themselves; while the less educated families try their utmost best to see that their children do not experience the unpleasant consequences of illiteracy, ignorance and low social status which have engulfed them. The academic achievement of students in the school of nursing depends not only on their intelligence quotients and quality of instruction in school but also on the socio economic status of parents, educational facilities in the home, social psychological factors, cultural genetic environmental factors, emotional factors and family size. However, illiterate parents who have no formal schooling do not provide their children with educational facilities for a conducive learning environment and the incentives to learn seems to be totally lacking in some homes and some children are often occupied with domestic duties that they have little or no time for their study. It is against this backdrop that the researcher investigated the influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone of Anambra State.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone of Anambra State. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. determine the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone.
  2. find out the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.
  3. find out the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.
  4. determine the influence of the education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

Significance of the Study

This study will be of benefit to the researcher, parents, teachers, school counselors and the government.

Researchers will benefit because the study will act as a reference point to other interested scholars who may be interested in the area of influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing.

The result of this study will be of benefit to parents to identify proper home environmental factors that affects the academic performance of their children. This is achieved by providing educational facilities in the homes and a conducive study environment.

The study will also benefit to teachers and school counselors because it will help them look beyond intellectual ability, interest and other home environmental factors for the causes of under-achievement in schools, because it is possible for the students to be under-achieving due to lack of learning facilities and encouragement from parents.

The government will also benefit because it will help them understand the divergent family background of the students with the concomitant individual differences, for proper career placement and public enlightenment programme.

Scope of the study

The study was delimited to influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone of Anambra State. The content scope covered concept of home environment, concept of school environment, history and origin of nursing education in Nigeria, parents’ economic status, home location and students’ academic achievement, family size on students’ academic achievement and education of parents and students’ academic achievement. The geographical area of study is Anambra south education zone.

Research Questions

The following research questions were posed to guide study:

  1. What is the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone?
  2. What is the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone?
  3. What is the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone?
  4. What is the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone?

Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone.
  2. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.
  3. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.
  4. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter review of related literature was done under the following sub-headings:

Conceptual Framework

Concept of Education

Etymologically, the  words  Education  is  derived  from  Greek  words Educate-to   form  or  to  train  educere-  to  lead  out.  The  term  educere”  means  that  the  leaner  has  innate  qualities  or  ideas  which  has  to  be  developed  or  brought  out. In  line  with  this,  the  idealist    believe  that  man  at  birth  is  imbibed  with  qualities  which  has  to  be  developed in  order  to  make  man  pure  and  perfect  (Osibe, 2013).  Education  is  as  old  as  the  existence  of  man  on  earth.  The  early  man  learnt  to  adapt  to  his  social  and  physical  environment  by  observation  and private  learning. Over  the  years,  governments  all  over the  would  have  evolved  national  objectives  to  be  obtained through education  because   education  has  been  attained  as  the  instrument  for  development  of  a  nation

Edafe (2019) opined that if the broad definition given to education by the two schools of thought; “educare” which means to bring up and “educere” which means to lead out is going to be effectively achieved, there is need for more governmental involvement and provision of fund for the educational sector. Nigerian government and other countries world-over now pay adequate attention to education. This is to enable the sector meet with the challenges of the 21stcentury and most essentially the world-wide revolution in the area of information communication technology (Odufowokan, 2017). According  to  Obanya, (2019)  Education  plays an  important  role in  the  development  of  any  nation  that  wants  to  attain prominence  in  the world. This means that any nation without sound educational system is bound to face serious developmental problems. This is why nations spend reasonable proportion of their annual budget on education. This implies that education help the learners to call out innate tendencies, capacities and capabilities. Education is also a vital tool for empowerment that allows meaningful contribution to the society (Balogun, 2013). Obioha (2012) saw education as all round development of individual intellectually, socially, physically, normally and emotionally which will enable him or her adapts and contributes to any society he finds himself and makes the society better than he finds it. Education is one of the basic ingredients of life. It is the most important instrument for any form of social engineering and moral regeneration in the society (FRN, 2013)

Unigwe (2018) saw education as a process through which an individual realize his/her potentials and made to be fully integrated into the society to live happily in harmony with others and so be equipped to contribute meaningfully to the development of his environment. According to Adams (2011), education brings about social changes in attitude, motivation and incentives which lead to technological change, invention and imitation.  Education in all its spheres seeks to enhance the productivity of a nation’s work force by impacting the existing norms, customs and tradition to the growing generation. Education is a pivot on which the growth and development of any nation depends, thus every nation strive to educate her citizens, no matter the age. But, Eyetsemitan (2013) emphasized that, education involves creating a wide range of opportunities for citizens for overall growth and efficiency. Education being an indispensable tool in nation building is a process of systematic training and instruction designed to transmit knowledge and acquisition of skills, potentials and abilities which will enable an individual to contribute efficiently to the growth and development of his society and nation. Osakwe (2016) stated that, education involves all round development of an individual physically, socially, morally, intellectually and mentally.

Concept of Academic Achievement

According to Eze (2012), academic achievement as the extent to which a learner is profiting from instruction in a given area of learning. It is the reflection of the extent to which skills and knowledge have been imparted to students. Adeyemi and Adeyemi (2014) concurred with this definition by explaining that academic achievement is the ability of students to study and remember facts, communicate knowledge and skills acquired verbally or in writing to people in the society.  Baadjies (2014) defined academic achievement as the result of teacher’s effectiveness in teaching learning process. Therefore the extent of teachers’ lesson preparation, presentation, subject mastery and effective communication are reflectively shown in students’ academic achievement (Adu & Olatundun 2017).

Academic achievement is the outcome of education; the extent to which a student, teacher or institutions have achieved their educational goals (Kyoshaba 2019). Ebeunwa-Okoh (2010) and Coetzee (2011) strengthens this definition by emphasizing that academic achievement is the participants’ examination grades (Grade point average) at the end of a particular semester or programme and higher scores indicate better academic performance. Umar, Shaib, Aituisi, Yakubu & Bada (2010) opined that, academic achievement is an excellent measure that evidently shows how knowledge is transferred in this modern society. He emphasized that academic performance shows how truly a particular students will be useful to the society. Academic achievement is defined as student’s success or failure in an examination which occurs as a result of student’s efforts, teacher’s quality and enabling environment provided by the educational institution and family. Some of the purposes of academic achievement measurement are enumerated in Ukwuije (2019) as follows: to determine the relative effectiveness of a programme in terms of students’ behavioural outputs; to identify students growth or lack of growth in acquiring desirable knowledge skills, attitudes and social values; to help teachers determine the effectiveness of their teaching technique and learning material; to help motivate students to learn as they discover their progress or lack of progress in given task and others. However, as a measure of academic performance, teacher-given grades have well-known limitations. Grades are composite measures that account not only for students’ content mastery but often for other factors, such as their class participation, attitudes, progress over time, and attendance.

 Ahmad (2011) defined academic achievement as a way of quantifying the academic success of a student. Academic performance is related to the knowledge and skills developed by a student in various courses of study. Garner-O’Neale and Harrison (2013) noted that the level of academic performance is calculated using tests, assignments and final examination results and is dependent on the standards put in place by the educational institution. Pitan (2015) remarked that today’s modern society expects everybody to be a high achiever. She noted that the key criteria to determine one’s actual potentials and capabilities may be academic performance, which has turned into an index of the student’s future and upward mobility. Academic performance is usually measured by levels and test scores (Kingdom, 2017). As indicated by the Cambridge University Report 2003, academic performance is the performance level in the examination and major modules.

However, in South Australia, Tan and Yates (2017) noted that, academic achievement is measured in terms of past examination performance, performance in the midterms and failure in modules. Maiyo and Ashioya (2013) commented that in Kenya, education is examination oriented and consequently the main assessment for performance is through examinations. As stated by Ali (2014), the social and economic improvement of the nation is fundamentally connected with student academic achievement. Academic achievement assumes an essential role in delivering the best quality graduates who will become leaders and the workforce in the nation in charge of the nation’s monetary and social advancement. According to Singh (2013), academic achievement refers to how students deal with their studies and students manage their studies and how they adapt to or fulfill diverse assignments given to them by their instructors. Academic achievement can be defined as perfection in all academic disciplines in class as well as extracurricular activities. It includes excellence in sport, behaviour, confidence, communication skills, punctuality, assertiveness, arts, culture and the like.

According to Afolabi (2010), majority of Nigerian schools, the classroom accommodation is grossly inadequate. As a result of the large enrolment in these schools, the classrooms designed for only thirty or forty pupils in most cases as well as the chairs and desks are not enough as pupils were found sharing chairs, standing up, or sitting on windows or broken desks. When pupils are overcrowded like this, there is a stalling of the teaching-learning process and a disruption of the children’s mental activity, a situation that generally militate against effective teaching and intellectual development of the children.  In order to achieve the goals of education, the environment has to be conducive for learning. In fact, education thrives well only if there is good learning environment to assist learners to get the necessary information at each stage of learning. The environment constitutes an important aspect of the learning process. They create the needed conditions for effectiveness of teaching and learning. Hence, it is pertinent to critically look at the environmental factors that influence academic achievement of students, measures that can help, improve them and make some recommendations.

According to Chukwuemeka (2013), environments play major roles in the life of every individual whether a student, teacher, employer or employee. The challenge of education today is to offer experiences that provide students with opportunities to develop the understanding, skills, and attitudes necessary to become lifelong learners, capable of identifying and solving problems and dealing with change. Subsequently, Afolabi (2010) observed that, in a majority of Nigerian schools, the classroom accommodation is grossly inadequate. As a result of the large enrolment in these schools, the classrooms designed for only thirty or forty pupils in most cases as well as the chairs and desks are not enough as students were found sharing chairs, standing up, or sitting on windows or broken desks. When students are overcrowded like this, there is a stalling of the teaching-learning process and a disruption of the children’s mental activity, a situation that generally militate against effective teaching and intellectual development of the children. In many of these schools, classrooms, libraries and laboratories is nothing to write home about, all leading to decline in academic standards and achievement (Aluede, Okhiku & Udele, 2019).

Home Environment

A home is a place where people live with their parents or guidance and it is the place where they are groomed. It is a place where the child begins to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children (Collins, 2017). The home influences the students at the most possible time of his life at a time when his mind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole of the child’s life. The child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him in self worth and academic performance (Ekanem, 2014). The environment is the immediate surroundings in which the pupils find themselves. It is also refer to as the physical and psychological conditions that affect children. The parents or guidance of these children are responsible for providing the right home environment that would facilitate effective learning for their wards and some factors that influence their academic performance include: parental educational background, background, parental economic status, parental marital status and parental home location (Collins, 2017).

According to Ogbemudia and Aiasa (2013), the parents or guidance of these pupils are responsible for providing the right home environment that would facilitate effective learning for their wards. Furthermore, in student’s home environment, some factors that influences their academic performance: parental educational background, parental economic status, parental marital status and parental home location. In assessing the parental marital status on students’ academic achievement, much attention would be given to sound human relations, as the home environment that is tensed due to divorce or unhealthy atmosphere of quarrelling, fighting due to polygamy cannot favour learning, in the home as the mind of the pupils will not be settled in order to give room for creativity. Ekanem (2014) stated that, harmonious home create emotional stability in the child at home and subsequently throughout his school life. Students that live near the market square will adopt the language of the people around him/her which is pidgin. This could affect the child in learning good English at school. Likewise, a pupil that lives in a communal compound where pidgin is the order of the day would also be affected negatively in the learning of good English at school.

Furthermore, students from homes located in an environment where there is noisy traffic, noisy sound of machine from ply-wood industry and market square will be affect negatively in their performance because the noisy environment would disturb them from concentrating while in the classroom reading. Hence, Durojaiye (2016) maintained that, physical and psychological conditions of the home environment affect the children academically. Education is very vital in human existence because the society and education are interrelated and inter-dependent. This can also be seen in the nature and development of a child in a given society. The school is an umbrella governing children from different parental background and social background and as such the children learning and rate of academic development is closely related to experience. The student’s performance in school is determined by environment in which the student finds him or herself. In the student’s environment, different factors can be found which include social economic, psychological, cultural genetic environmental and emotional. The issue of students’ performance at schools has been of concern ever since modern education was introduced. Many countries have come to realize that students are at the heart of educational process and that without good performance; all innovations in education are doomed to failure. There is a wide dissatisfaction with the current situation of schooling in many countries and parents come in for the blame. This is because majority of the parents involve their children in garden and other domestic work. This makes students have limited time with their teachers and no time for revision, therefore, affecting their performance (Filmer, 2015).

School Environment

Educational process of development occurs in physical, social, cultural and psychological environment. A proper and adequate environment is very much necessary for a fruitful learning of the child. Especially the home and the school should provide the necessary stimulus for learning experience. The child spends most of his time in school and here his environment is exerting a different influence on performance through curricula, teaching techniques, relationship.(Lawrence, 2012).The increasing school enrolment and students interests in learning from the best kind of environment has generated much research interest in order to put into use by private individuals mission, communities or government proprietors an environment that will be stimulating and will enhance academic performance of students. Environment is a place where the child functions. This includes home, the school, the peer group, the classroom, the totality o the child’s upbringing including his spiritual life, tissue needs, social needs, psychological needs it is defined not to mean only the place in which the child lives but also the people with which he comes in contact with (Akem, 2018).

Gagne (2017) stated that, environment for the child includes a host of structures such as buildings, furniture, equipments, instructional materials, the teachers, the peer group and other people involved in the development of a child. Booth & Okely (2015), viewed school environment as the physical environment (e.g. facilities and equipment), school policies (e.g. time allocated for physical and Health Educational Sport) and school practices regulating PE and Sport, banners to participation and strategies to promote participation). Nwangwu (2010) outlined the characteristics of school environment to include school buildings, classrooms, furniture, playgrounds, sporting facilities, laboratories, libraries and equipments which aid the teachers in effective delivery of lesson. According to State of Maine (2012), school environment includes the physical and aesthetic surroundings and the psychological climate and culture of the school.

School environment consist of both material and non-material resources in the school. It includes the teachers, peers, cohesiveness, the subjects, method of teaching. A healthy and attractive school environment makes for conducive learning and promotes students pride in their schools and their interest to stay in school (Mgbodile, 2014). According to Nwizu (2013), school environment in which the learner acquires knowledge has a great influence on the cognitive performance of the learner. It has also been generally agreed that the quality of learning is markedly influenced by environmental and organizational factors. Okafor (2012) opined that, learning is an intimate transaction between the learner and his environment. This transaction takes place in a specific context. The child learning in a conducive environment transcends the school parameter. It encompasses the entire community and nation. School environments which include wall, ground, lights, and mechanical system can serve as active contributors to the students’ learning process.

The school environment helps to acquired knowledge to a student because it has a great influence on the cognitive domain performance of the learner. It has a great influence on the quality of leaning processes and environment organized factors (Okafor, 2016). As such, schools play a key part in children’s development, from peer relationships and social interactions to academic attainment and cognitive progress, emotional control and behavioural expectations, and physical and moral development. (Fazel, 2014).  It helps to mobilize the school building, school facilities and accessories etc. The influence of school location on the performance of students of public secondary schools has been concern of many educations. The school locations are known to influence the students learning though quality of teaching staff, class size and availability of infrastructure (Eze, 2018).

Parents’ Economic Status

Parent educational status is considered one of the most stable aspects of Socio Economic Status (SES) because it is typically established at an early age and tends to remain the same over time (Sirin, 2015). To date, many studies have established the effect of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement. One consistent finding is that parents from the higher economic status are more involved in their child’s education. In this case, the higher the parent’s education level, occupation status, income and their household income, the higher would be the parent’s involvement in their child’s education. As a result, the strength of parental involvement enables the children to achieve education success at school (Katsilis & Rubinson, 2019). Researchers also argue that nonmonetary factors such as parenting (measured by parents’ educational expectations for their children and the attention parents give to their children’s education) and home environment (measured by the presence of books, newspapers, and other learning materials at home) can be more important for children’s academic achievement than money. They have found that regardless of family income, high parental expectations and more parental attention to and effort toward their children’s education help to increase children academic achievement (Mayer, 2012).

Home Location and Students’ Academic Achievement

In terms of the influence of home location on the academic performance of students, this research is concerned with the socio-metric factors such as the kinds of social activities around the home environment of the students. For instance, a student that lives near the market square will adopt the language of the people around him/her which is pidgin. This could affect the student in learning good English at school. Likewise, a student that lives in a communal compound where pidgin is the order of the day would also be affected negatively in the learning of good English at school (Ogbemudia & Aiasa, 2013). Furthermore, students from homes located in an environment where there is noisy traffic, noisy sound of machine from ply-wood industry and market square will be affect negatively in their performance in schools because of the noisy environment will disturb them from concentrating while studying their books, textbooks. Story books and even in listening to educative radio programmes. Hence, Durojaiye (2012) maintained that physical and psychological conditions of the home environment affect the students academically.

The influence of school location on the achievement of students of public secondary schools has been the concern of many educationists. Ezeh (2018) opined that, school locations are known to influence the students learning through quality of teaching staff, class size and availability of infrastructure. The choice and location of school site have been an indispensable aspect of any effective school planning. This is so because it is the site that can influence the type of the school to be built and the quality and quantity of the buildings. A child’s environment that is rural or urban exerts considerable influence on his intellectual development, Okonkwo (2017) pointed out that, schools in rural areas is likely to face the problem of poor academic performance due to the inequality in provision of human and material resources required for positive educational performance. This in turn will perpetuate inequality of access to education provision of adequate number and quality of teachers, contents and methods of teaching. An urban child has an edge over the rural ones in terms of “life chances” such as better education and the socialization pattern (Ajeh, 2011). There are three social classes that exist-higher, middle and lower social classes. The urban, higher and middle classes through improved “life chances are exposed to better environment with access to libraries, adequate space, continuation classes and mass media. The rural children are hardly exposed to those facilities because they are mainly from lower social class. As a result, children from this background have low academic performance.

Okeke (2013) contended that, in terms of facilities and structures, urban schools are worse because of very high enrollment figures. In urban schools, the facilities are grossly inadequate making it necessary to run a sort of shift system especially in primary schools. This has been strongly condemned as it does not make for effective teaching and learning. Stressing the urban/rural inequality, Ajeh (2011) noted that, because of lack of social amenities in remote rural area, teacher sent there do not like to stay even if they agree to work; they prefer to live in towns and shuttle to such areas. Ezema (2016) said that, the teacher is one of the most important factors in the child’s environment that influences his academic performance. Some experts in the field have agreed that rural secondary schools are poorly staffed, with few professionally qualified teaching personnel. Broomhall and Johnson (2014) concluded that, rural students perform less than that of urban student on standardized test of educational performance. This may be due to educational expenditure which is smaller in rural areas.

Family Size and Students Academic Achievement

It is acknowledged that many factors influence the performance of students in schools, some of which include societal factors, peer groups, government, teachers, the school and the students’ attitude to studies. The family is not left out because it is the unit through which every individual student comes from. But one of the striking issues about the family is the size of the family. The family size may contribute positively or negatively to influence the behavior of its members. Chudi (2012) reported that, one of the contributing factors that determine the academic performance of students is family size. Family size is the total number of people in a family, consisting of parents and their children. Tenibiaje (2019) saw family size as the total number of children in the child’s family in addition to the child himself. He stated that the family type that a child comes from either monogamous or polygamous family determine the size of the family and usually has impact on the child academic performance.  Information from literature on family size revealed that children from large families are found to do worse than children from small families (Iacovou, 2011). Studies have also shown that Parental attention to children declines as the number of sibling’s increases.

Children’s attainment depends on inputs of time, attention, resource and money from their parents: therefore the more children there are in the family the less of these inputs. This tends to put children from larger families to have lower levels of education (Booth and Kee 2019).  Parents’ behavior in the family could also have a great impact on the child’s performance in school. Parental support is one of such behavior pattern in which a parent invests time and energy in feeding and protecting the children. Adequate parental support means to provide the child with basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. It also ensures the child’s health and physical safety as well as the child’s mental, emotional and moral values is adequately taken care. Ogunshola and Adewale (2012) stated that, other support of the parents lies in the responsibility of training a child and families who were involved in their children’s education through homework, monitor their performance in school and ask questions have their children achieve success in school.  Ayodele (2017) opined that, many African homes do not emphasize the value and language of the school. Also, parents see the need to send their children to school, but do not often see the need to encourage them to do well in neither school nor do they often see the need to provide facilities for the child to support what he/she has learnt at school. While some parents are too busy to get involved in what their children are doing in school.

The studies of Odok (2013) attest that small family sizes are linked to higher educational attainment. Family size in the context of this study refers to the total number of children in a child’s family in addition to the child himself. Large numbered families whether rich or poor are difficult to maintain, they are characterized with a high number of children, rowdiness and this does not create convenience for learning. They also create in the upbringing of children some identified problems such as feeding, poor clothing, insufficient funds, and lack of proper attention for children, disciplinary problems and malnutrition which impact negatively on children academic performance. Eristwhistle (2016) stated that, studies carried out in Scotland found that, children with relatively small size families performed better in verbal and non-verbal tests, than children from large family size in the same test. This according to him is because children from large families have less frequent interactions with adults. Similarly, parental attention by parents declines as the number of sibling’s increases and latter born children perform less well than their earlier born siblings.

Bysenk and Locksoh (2011) affirmed that, most extroverted children come from smaller homes and that they adjust more easily to school environment, can express themselves easily in the classroom therefore, they achieve a greater academic performance as opposed to introverted children of larger family size. Booth and Kee (2016) confirmed that, children from larger families have lower levels of education and also perform poorly in academics. However, Powell and Stellman (2010) argued that, children’s academic attainment depends on inputs of time and money from their parents, the more children there are in family the less of both inputs. These inputs are not money alone, but other essential things like attention, resource dilution and so on. The family type that a child comes from either monogamous (nuclear), polygamous, divorced parents, re-married parents single parents, or step-parents usually has an impact on a child’s academic performance. The nuclear family consists of two parents and children. It is held in esteem by society as being the ideal in which to raise children. Children in nuclear families receive strength and stability from the two parents’ structure and generally have more opportunities due to financial ease of two parents.

Stone (2012) asserted that, children from single homes are more likely to show to a great extent, the effect of under nourishment, illness, insufficient rest as well as negative attitude towards school, which manifest in infancy, which is a factor that can affect achievement and performance negatively. In the same vein, Kessler (2013) blamed poor academic performance to another family type known as step family. Individuals who divorce most times choose to remarry. This type of family constitutes two separate families merging in to one unit (a new husband and new wife and their children from previous marriage or relationship). However, children from such families most often become depressed and would want to compensate themselves in acts of unrest and might go astray and loose academic focus. This is because the atmosphere at such homes is not likely to be conducive for the children to make decisions of their own. Perry (2019) observed that, children of female- headed families (single mothers) are at a greater risk of poor academic achievement, because of mother having very low incomes and inability to provide the basic needs of the children which becomes responsible poor achievement of the children; but that poor performance could also occur even when income level is controlled.  A conducive environment is necessary to enhance the academic achievement of a child. A stimulating home environment can spur up a potential mediocre into an intellectual giant while an inhibiting could turn a genius into a mediocre (Olakan, Osakinle, &Onijingin, 2013). Taking care of children and also making provision for their needs, especially educational needs, are very important in determining their academic achievement.

Educational Status of Parents and Students Academic Achievement

Education has a pivotal role in nation as well as individual character building. It is a life line for any society and nation. Education of a child needs multidimensional efforts. Students, teachers, institute and parents all have their importance in their process of learning.  Parents are the most immediate relation of a child so their educational status has an important influence on the child personality. Well qualified and educated parents can better understand the educational needs, their children’s aptitude and tendency in any subject for future settlement. They can help their children in their early education in better way which affects their proficiency in their relative area of knowledge. Parents’ education is such a motivating force for a child which paves the way for his/her future. It is an admitted fact that the children of educated parents are more confident, resourceful and experienced than the children whose parents lack education. However, the family plays an important role in formal and informal education. The way a child is raised has an adverse impact not only to oneself but to the entire society (Jencks, 2012).

While growing up the child spends most of his time at home with the members of family and the various type of environment he or she is brought in also hamper their emotional and cognitive development. In order to help a child grow in proper way with sound health and wealthy mind, parents should come into the picture in shaping the child’s character and frame of mind. Karshen (2013) noted that, students whose parents are well educated get higher positions than those whose parents are not educated. Educated parents help their children in school work activities. Dave and Dave (2017) found that, high achievers belong to homes with parent’s higher education level. The failed students belong to those who have lower parent’s education level. Williams (2017) found that, more educated parents create environment that facilitate learning. They involve themselves in children’s school activities and school environment. The education of the parents or Parents’ level of education refers to scholastic attainment of mother and father in Schools/Colleges, which plays an important role in determining a child’s intellectual performance. It is, believed that parents’ educational level may be the main source of influence that determines a child’s academic achievement.

According to Benbow and Arymant (2015), parents with higher educational level could motivate the intellectual potential within their children that may lead them to perform in a better way in school and in return further their education.

For example, the educated parent’s level may foster higher parents’ involvement in adolescents’ school achievement, which in turn may influence high school completion (Astone & Mclanaham, 2019). Educated parents were also found to be able to make constructive decisions, such as how much time to spend with their children, give their income and may decide on how much to give to their children’s education (Haveman & Wolfe 2015). Hudson (2011) noted that, parental educational attainment has long-term influences on student educational attainment. Students whose parents have degrees are often predisposed to environments of academic preparation and achievement which reinforce the retention of first-year college students. Apparently, students whose parents encourage and provide their educational needs always perform excellently. It was discovered that many parents do not realized the importance of keeping their children at school beyond some certain level. They preferred to have their children working with them in their trade and those that are interested in keeping their children at school, never bordered to give a follow up by checking their children’s note and this makes the children performance to go below average at school.

Brief History and Origin of Nursing Education in Nigeria

The history of nursing education in Nigeria began with the concept of Florence Nightingale originating from the Crimean war in 1854-1856. However, the ideology of nursing came into Nigeria through the early missionaries with the amalgamation of Nigeria by the British colony (1861). Nursing in Nigeria thus began informally with the spiritual duty of care for the physically sick and injured individuals (NMCN, 2016). However, this duty of care motivated the then missionaries to develop nursing homes and dispensaries to allow apprenticeship in nursing, which began nursing education as a vocation, although this form of informal nursing education was constrained by language barrier (Nija Nurses, 2016). Furthermore, the International Council of Nurses developed the four domains, which is to promote health, prevent illness, restore health and alleviate suffering to organize nursing into a more formal form of profession (ICN, 1899).     This led to the establishment of the first formal nursing education, which is a school of nursing founded in 1949 and the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (NMCN), was founded along sides to ensure standards of nursing education. Since the establishment of the NMCN, there has been a marked transition in the nursing education (NMCN, 2016). This emergence and re-envision of nursing education from a vocation to a high standard of professionalism has led to the development of nurses with a broad educational background, scientific and technological advancement and increase literacy level to meet up with the changing roles of the nursing profession (Ayandiran, 2013). Nevertheless, there are still some issues such as acceptance of change, guidance and supervision as well as lack of mentoring, poor professional development and political influences on the educational system of Nigerian nurses.

Nurse education is a very essential subject of concern giving the fact that it plays an imperative role in the formation and strengthening of nurses both in the educational and clinical setting globally (Holland, 2016). As stated in the Willis commission report (2016) the roles of the nursing profession is rapidly increasing requiring an increasing demand in knowledge and skill acquisition, dependence and autonomy, information and technology in the clinical competence and judgments of nurses to meet the expectations of healthcare service users. Consequently, it is paramount that a critical understanding of the global perspective of nursing education is analysed so as to facilitate preparedness of nurses and ensure benchmarking of theoretical and clinical knowledge and expertise. However, it is noteworthy that there are existing discrepancies in the delivery of nursing education globally and this has influenced the globalization and uniformity in the efficiency of nursing practice as nursing roles are currently underutilized for health practices globally, irrespective of the establishment of global standards in nursing education by the World Health Organization to make nursing education universal (Shishani, 2012). Therefore, the aim of this essay is to critically discuss the organization of nursing education in Nigeria taking into consideration contemporary issues that influence professional development, mentoring, coaching and supervision, as well as the assessment methodologies utilized. In addition, some comparisons and possible recommendations will be made.

In Nigeria, the educational curriculum is structured so that general adult nursing is a compulsory starting point to nursing education with minimum entry criteria of five credits in basic sciences and English language; thus, educational and professional advancement is then defined as a progression to post basic education in different specialties. This structure of nursing education has been criticized for its over-loaded curriculum because it goes in depth to explore areas of nursing that could be studied as specialties and Nigerian nurses’ ends up with multiple qualifications but are deficient in specializations (Adamu, 2015). This is in contrast with the system of nursing education in most foreign countries, such as, the United Kingdom where student could begin their nursing career from their preferred specialties and nursing education is designed to facilitate professional advancement through the provision of subspecialties such as diabetic, renal, oncology nursing (RCN, 2010). Nonetheless, it could be suggested that the over-loaded curriculum of the Nigerian nursing education could be effective in preparing student nurses to fit into various areas of nursing competently.

Theoretical Framework

Skinnerian Environmental Theory  

The Skinnerian Environmental Theory as postulated by John Locke (1917) states that, experience and learning are basic and very essential to understanding of human behaviour and the environmental approaches conceive human behaviour as something that is acquired through the process of interaction with the environment, rather than inherited. This section is based on the fact that environment is vital for the achievement of educational goal. This becomes necessary since the study is on the influence of school environment on the student achievement of public universities. According to this model, behavioral development is controlled by and is a function of the physical and psycho-social environment. Children’s development is believed to be shaped by the pattern of reinforcement it receives from the environment. Skinner (1948) contributed in shaping the views expressed by environmental approach. It includes the work of such people as Thorndike Toleman, Guthrie and Hull. These writers have these basic assumptions about the process of learning. These are: Learning is manifested by a change in behaviour, and the environment shapes behaviour. Therefore learning is the acquisition of new behaviour through conditioning. 

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory (1961) states that, children develop new behaviour by observing other people’s behaviour and by observing the reinforcing or punishing experience of others. Albert Bandura’s social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observational learning which occurs when the behaviour is influenced by watching the behaviour of a model. It is the consequences of the mode’s behaviour that determines the behaviour of the observer. The common objects in our environment which children usually adopt as models include stars in the class, school teacher. Bandura listed four processes involved in observational learning, intentional, retention, production and motivational processes. He emphasized that social learning is interactional in nature. He stressed that human learning involves the interaction of the person, the person’s behaviour and the environment. It is noteworthy that a child’s progress in the school is influenced by the attitude he develops towards not only the subjects he is to learn but also the school and the school situation, hence his attitude will depend on the sort of experience he has had. Based on the underlining principles and assumptions guiding the above discussed theories, the current study is therefore, being anchored on the Bandura’s social learning theory.   

Empirical Review

Chukwuemeka (2009) carried a study on the influence of environment on secondary school students’ academic achievement in Port Harcourt Local Government Area. The study adopted a survey design and population includes all teachers of public secondary school in Port Harcourt L.G.A. finding after analysis of data includes: students performance are significantly  affected by the environment since man and learning is a product of the environment, the proper maintenance of fixtures leads to lower than average students performance, have background has an adverse effect on the academic performance of students and the use of internet made students to be lazy in their work. Based on the finding recommendation were made which include: school should try to maintain the school facilities and dull coloured points should be used on painting that there should be interaction between teachers and students, teachers should relate to all students no matter what their background and teachers should change their mode of setting questions that should not copy verbatim form the internet.

Also, Obeta (2014) studied the home environment on academic performance of students in Abia State. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The data for the study was generated using structured questionnaire and simple random sampling technique was used to draw 200 students and parents which made up the sample of the study. Data collected and analyzed showed that non provision of adequate learning materials by parents and non challant attitude of some parents towards the education of the children as well as socio economic states of students’ families all affects students’ academic achievement. It also revealed by the study are possible ways of solving problems which others includes: orientation should be given to parents on the implication and consequences of the type of family they will want to adopt on the child’s overall being especially on the child’s academic performance. Recommendations were given that parent no matter how busy they should make out time to sit with their children or ward and discuss their school work, direct them where necessary, discuss the academic problems of their children with their teachers or school guidance counselors so as  to detect students problems early enough and tackle it before it affects the student.

Summary of Related Literature

Education being an indispensable tool in nation building is a process of systematic training and instruction designed to transmit knowledge and acquisition of skills, potentials and abilities which will enable an individual to contribute efficiently to the growth and development of his society and nation. Education cannot be made possible if the environment which is the sum total of all external stimuli which affects a child from birth till death is not conducive for proper incorporation into the society. A home is a place where people live with their parents or guidance and it is the place where they are groomed. It is a place where the child begins to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. Parents or guidance are responsible for providing the right home environment that would facilitate effective learning for their wards. However, in student’s home environment, some factors influence their academic achievement such as parental educational background, parental economic status, parental marital status and parental home location. Parent educational status is considered one of the most stable aspects of Socio Economic Status (SES) because it is typically established at an early age and tends to remain the same over time. Students from homes located in an environment where there is noisy traffic, noisy sound of machine from ply-wood industry and market square will be affect negatively in their performance in schools because of the noisy environment will disturb them from concentrating while studying their books, textbooks. Story books and even in listening to educative radio programmes. The various evidences on home environmental factors on students’ academic achievement in schools did not specifically touch on the influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the schools of nursing. This gap provided a strong justification for this study to determine the influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone of Anambra State.

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHOD

In this section

In this chapter the procedures adopted in carrying out the study was described. These procedures are: research design, area of the study, population for the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument, reliability of the instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis.

Research Design

The research design that was used for this study is descriptive survey. It was aimed at investigating the influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone of Anambra State. Descriptive survey research design, according to Nworgu (2006), aims at collecting data and describing it in a systematic manner, the characteristic features or facts about a given population. This research design was considered appropriate for this study because descriptive survey described a situation as it is and identifies present conditions of the existing situation.

Area of the Study

This study was conducted in Anambra South zone of Anambra State which is made up of Anambra South, North and Anambra central senatorial zone. Anambra State is a Nigerian state, located in the southeastern region of the country. It has over 11 million residents Formed in 1976 from the former East Central State, the state is named after Omambala River, a river that runs through the state. The state capital is Awka, a rapidly growing city that increased in population from approximately 300,000 to 2.5 million between 2006 and 2018.

Population of the Study

The Population of the study comprised of 610 respondents which is made up of all the 7 nursing schools with 7 principals and 603 year two nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra south zone.

Sample and Sampling Techniques

The sample size for the study was 188. A proportionate random sampling technique was used to sample all the 7 nursing schools with 7 principal and 181 year two nursing students in Anambra South zone that was used for the study which is about 30% of the total population. The rationale for selecting this sample size is in line with Nwana (1982) who stated that if the population of a study is in a few hundred a 40% or more will do, if many hundreds, a 20% sample will do and several thousands, a 5% or less will do.                                             

Instrument for Data Collection

The research instruments that was used for the study is questionnaire. The questionnaire titled “Home Environment Academic Achievement Questionnaire (HEAAQ)” was made up of section A and B. The section A was used to elicit data on the demographic variables of the respondents while the section B consists of 20 items which was used to elicit data for the study to answer the Research Questions. The questionnaire was made up of four response rating scale options of strongly agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D), Strongly Disagree (SD).

Validity of Instrument for Data Collection

Copies of the instrument were given to a lecturer in the department of measurement and evaluation and two lecturers in the school of Education who vetted them in terms of appropriateness of content, clarity of words and relevance to the objective of the work. The corrections made were used in the final draft of the instruments to establish the face validity.

Reliability of the Instrument

The reliability of the instrument was determined by a trial-testing exercise. The instrument was administered on 2 principal and 10 students in year two in school of nursing in Enugu State which was outside the area of the study. Cronbach Alpha statistical tool was used to compute the internal consistency of the instrument. The responses from the respondents were collected and used to establish the reliability coefficient at 0.76.

Method of Date Collection

The researcher personally administered the instrument on the various schools with the help of three research assistants who were briefed before the commencement of the instrument administration. The research instrument “Home Environment Academic Achievement Questionnaire (HEAAQ)” was used by the researcher and his trained assistants to elicit data from the respondents of the sampled schools. The entire administered instrument was retrieved back.

Method of Data Analysis

Data that was collected from the schools through the “Home Environment Academic Achievement Questionnaire (HEAAQ)” were tallied and organized in tables in line with the research questions. The mean (X) with standard deviation (SD) was used to answer the research questions 1-4 and t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore, any mean item whose mean fell below 2.50 was disagreed on while those from 2.50 and above were agreed on. However, if the calculated t-test is less than the critical value at 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis was accepted but if calculated t-test is higher than the critical value of at 0.05 level of significance the null hypothesis was not accepted.

CHAPTER FOUR – PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

In this chapter, the results that have been arrived at are presented.

Research Question 1:

What is the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone?

 

Table 1: Influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing

principal (7)   Students(181)  n=188

S/NoStatementXSDXSDxixiRemark
1Family size can influence the academic achievement of nursing students. 3.230.683.160.723.19Agree
2Students from large families are given little or no attention by their parents.3.410.783.210.763.31Agree
3Students from polygamous home achieve better academically in school.2.310.662.250.622.28Disagree
4Parents with large families find it difficult to pay their children school fees and it affects them in school.3.110.723.160.643.14Agree
5Students from larger families have lower levels of education.3.210.783.330.863.27Agree
Cluster mean3.050.753.020.733.04Agree

The mean scores on table 1 ranges from 3.31 to 2.28. The mean scores from item 1 to 5 were agreed on except for item 3 which was disagreed on.  However, the grand mean is 3.04 which is Agreed. Therefore item 1 to 5 except for item 3 are influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone.  

Research Question 2:

What is the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone?

Table 2: influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

principal (7)   Students(181)  n=188

S/NoStatementXSDXSDxixiRemark
6Students feel unsecure if they attend a school where there is no security. 3.210.683.110.723.16Agree
7Schools located in a teaching hospital perform better than that located in the non-hospital environment. 2.880.782.760.762.82Agree
8A good access road to the school can influence the academic achievement of students.3.110.662.850.622.98Agree
9Tutors shy away from teaching in rural areas. 2.710.722.680.642.69Agree
10Nursing students in the urban Areas perform better than those in the rural areas. 3.210.783.130.863.26Agree
Cluster mean3.080.752.970.733.03Agree

The mean scores on table 2 ranges from 3.26 to 2.69. The mean scores from item 6 to 10 were agreed on. However, the grand mean is 3.03 which is Agree. Therefore item 6 to 10 are the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

Research Question 3:

What is the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone?

Table 3: influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

principal (7)   Students(181)  n=188

S/NoStatementXSDXSDxixiRemark
11Social-economic status of the family can influence the academic achievement of students.3.130.683.120.723.13Agree
12Students from high-income status parents achieve better academically. 3.210.783.110.763.16Agree
13Family not being able to pay school fees on time can influence the academic achievement of students. 2.810.662.750.622.78Agree
14Nursing is meant for those whose parents can afford school fees. 3.010.723.160.643.09Agree
15Occupation of parents can influence the academic achievement of nursing students.3.310.783.130.863.22Agree
Cluster mean3.010.753.010.733.01Agree

The mean scores on table 3 ranges from 3.22 to 2.69. The mean scores from item 11 to 15 are Agree. However, the grand mean is 3.01 is Agree. Therefore item 11 to 15 are the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone

Research Question 4:

What is the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone?

Table 4: influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

principal (7)   Students(181)  n=188

S/NoStatementXSDXSDxixiRemark
16Family educational background influences the academic achievement of students. 2.730.682.880.722..81Agree
17Parents who are educated encourage their children to further their education 3.10.783.040.763.07Agree
18Parents with high educational qualification always try to provide learning materials to their children 3.210.663.150.623.18Agree
19Parents with high educational qualification are always curious about their children education.3.110.723.170.643.14Agree
20Parents with a high educational qualification are more involved in their children education. 2.810.782.730.862.77Agree
Cluster mean2.970.752.980.732.98HE

The mean scores on table 4 ranges from 3.18 to 2.77. The mean scores from item 16 to 20 are Agree. However, the grand mean is 2.98 which is Agree. Therefore item 16 to 20 are the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing.

Hypotheses

Hypothesis1:

There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone.

Table 5: Mean(x), standard deviation (SD) and t-test analysis of principals and students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students

NXSDdft-Calt-CritLevel of Sig Decision
Head teachers73.120.83
1860.81.960.05Accepted
Teachers1812.940.77

The result of the analysis on table 5 using t- test shows that there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and the students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone.

This was so because the calculated t-test of 0.80 was less than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance and degree of freedom 186.

Hypothesis 2:

There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

Table 6: Mean(x), standard deviation (SD) and t-test analysis of principals and the students on the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

NXSDdft-Calt-CritLevel of Sig Decision
Principal73.220.73
1860.771.960.05Accepted
Students1813.080.81

The result of the analysis on table 6 using t- test shows that there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and the students on the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.. This was so because the calculated t-test of 0.77 was less than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance and degree of freedom 186.

Hypothesis 3:

There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the level of influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

Table 7: Mean(x), standard deviation (SD) and t-test analysis of principals and the students on the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

NXSDdft-Calt-CritLevel of Sig Decision
Principals72.860.76
1860.741.960.05Accepted
Students1812.740.72

The result of the analysis on table 7 using t- test shows that there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and the students on the level of influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone. This was so because the calculated t-test of 0.74 was less than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance and degree of freedom 186.

Hypothesis 4:

There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

Table 8: Mean(x), standard deviation (SD) and t-test analysis of principals and the students on the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

NXSDdft-Calt-CritLevel of Sig Decision
principals73.10.72
1860.791.960.05Accepted
Teachers1813.140.86

The result of the analysis on table 8 using t- test shows that there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and the students on the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone. This was so because the calculated t-test of 0.79 was less than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance and degree of freedom 186.

Summary of Major Findings

The result of the finding shows that, family size can influence the academic achievement of nursing students, students from large families are given little or no attention by their parents, parents with large families find it difficult to pay their children school fees and it affects them in school and students from larger families have lower levels of education are the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone.

The result of the finding shows that, students feel unsecure if they attend a school where there is no security, schools located in a teaching hospital perform better than that located in the non-hospital environment, a good access road to the school can influence the academic achievement of students, tutors shy away from teaching in rural areas and nursing students in the urban areas perform better than those in the rural areas are the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

The result of the finding shows that, social-economic status of the family can influence the academic achievement of students, students from high-income status parents achieve better academically, family not being able to pay school fees on time can influence the academic achievement of students, nursing is meant for those whose parents can afford school fees and occupation of parents can influence the academic achievement of nursing students are the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

The result of the finding shows that, Family educational background influences the academic achievement of students, Parents who are educated encourage their children to further their education, Parents with high educational qualification always try to provide learning materials to their children, Parents with high educational qualification are always curious about their children education and Parents with a high educational qualification are more involved in their children education are the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

CHAPTER FIVE – DISCUSSION, CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In this section

Discussions of findings  

Influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing

 

The result of the finding shows that, family size can influence the academic achievement of nursing students, students from large families are given little or no attention by their parents, parents with large families find it difficult to pay their children school fees and it affects them in school and students from larger families have lower levels of education are the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone.

The family size may contribute positively or negatively to influence the behavior of its members. Chudi (2012) reported that, one of the contributing factors that determine the academic performance of students is family size. Family size is the total number of people in a family, consisting of parents and their children. Tenibiaje (2019) saw family size as the total number of children in the child’s family in addition to the child himself. He stated that the family type that a child comes from either monogamous or polygamous family determine the size of the family and usually has impact on the child academic performance.  Information from literature on family size revealed that children from large families are found to do worse than children from small families (Iacovou, 2011).

The studies of Odok (2013) attest that small family sizes are linked to higher educational attainment. Family size in the context of this study refers to the total number of children in a child’s family in addition to the child himself. Large numbered families whether rich or poor are difficult to maintain, they are characterized with a high number of children, rowdiness and this does not create convenience for learning. They also create in the upbringing of children some identified problems such as feeding, poor clothing, insufficient funds, and lack of proper attention for children, disciplinary problems and malnutrition which impact negatively on children academic performance. Eristwhistle (2016) stated that, studies carried out in Scotland found that, children with relatively small size families performed better in verbal and non-verbal tests, than children from large family size in the same test.

Influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

The result of the finding shows that, students feel unsecure if they attend a school where there is no security, schools located in a teaching hospital perform better than that located in the non-hospital environment, a good access road to the school can influence the academic achievement of students, tutors shy away from teaching in rural areas and nursing students in the urban areas perform better than those in the rural areas are the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

Students from homes located in an environment where there is noisy traffic, noisy sound of machine from ply-wood industry and market square will be affect negatively in their performance in schools because of the noisy environment will disturb them from concentrating while studying their books, textbooks. Story books and even in listening to educative radio programmes. Hence, Durojaiye (2012) maintained that physical and psychological conditions of the home environment affect the students academically. The influence of school location on the achievement of students of public secondary schools has been the concern of many educationists. Ezeh (2018) opined that, school locations are known to influence the students learning through quality of teaching staff, class size and availability of infrastructure. The choice and location of school site have been an indispensable aspect of any effective school planning. This is so because it is the site that can influence the type of the school to be built and the quality and quantity of the buildings.

A child’s environment that is rural or urban exerts considerable influence on his intellectual development, Okonkwo (2017) pointed out that, schools in rural areas is likely to face the problem of poor academic performance due to the inequality in provision of human and material resources required for positive educational performance. This in turn will perpetuate inequality of access to education provision of adequate number and quality of teachers, contents and methods of teaching. An urban child has an edge over the rural ones in terms of “life chances” such as better education and the socialization pattern (Ajeh, 2011).

Influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing

The result of the finding shows that, social-economic status of the family can influence the academic achievement of students, students from high-income status parents achieve better academically, family not being able to pay school fees on time can influence the academic achievement of students, nursing is meant for those whose parents can afford school fees and occupation of parents can influence the academic achievement of nursing students are the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

Parent educational status is considered one of the most stable aspects of Socio Economic Status (SES) because it is typically established at an early age and tends to remain the same over time (Sirin, 2015). To date, many studies have established the effect of parent’s socioeconomic status on parental involvement. One consistent finding is that parents from the higher economic status are more involved in their child’s education. In this case, the higher the parent’s education level, occupation status, income and their household income, the higher would be the parent’s involvement in their child’s education. As a result, the strength of parental involvement enables the children to achieve education success at school (Katsilis & Rubinson, 2019). Researchers also argue that nonmonetary factors such as parenting (measured by parents’ educational expectations for their children and the attention parents give to their children’s education) and home environment (measured by the presence of books, newspapers, and other learning materials at home) can be more important for children’s academic achievement than money.

Influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

The result of the finding shows that, Family educational background influences the academic achievement of students, Parents who are educated encourage their children to further their education, Parents with high educational qualification always try to provide learning materials to their children, Parents with high educational qualification are always curious about their children education and Parents with a high educational qualification are more involved in their children education are the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing. There is no significant difference between the principals and the students on the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.

Well qualified and educated parents can better understand the educational needs, their children’s aptitude and tendency in any subject for future settlement. They can help their children in their early education in better way which affects their proficiency in their relative area of knowledge. Parents’ education is such a motivating force for a child which paves the way for his/her future. It is an admitted fact that the children of educated parents are more confident, resourceful and experienced than the children whose parents lack education. However, the family plays an important role in formal and informal education. The way a child is raised has an adverse impact not only to oneself but to the entire society (Jencks, 2012).

While growing up the child spends most of his time at home with the members of family and the various type of environment he or she is brought in also hamper their emotional and cognitive development. In order to help a child grow in proper way with sound health and wealthy mind, parents should come into the picture in shaping the child’s character and frame of mind. Karshen (2013) noted that, students whose parents are well educated get higher positions than those whose parents are not educated. Educated parents help their children in school work activities. Dave and Dave (2017) found that, high achievers belong to homes with parent’s higher education level. The failed students belong to those who have lower parent’s education level. Williams (2017) found that, more educated parents create environment that facilitate learning. They involve themselves in children’s school activities and school environment. The education of the parents or Parents’ level of education refers to scholastic attainment of mother and father in Schools/Colleges, which plays an important role in determining a child’s intellectual performance.

The t-test analysis of principals and students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students

The result of the analysis shows that, there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and the students on the influence of family size on the academic achievement of nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra South Zone. This was so because the calculated t-test of 0.80 was less than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance and degree of freedom 186.

The t-test analysis of principals and the students on the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

 

The result of the analysis shows that, there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and the students on the influence of home location on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone.. This was so because the calculated t-test of 0.77 was less than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance and degree of freedom 186.

The t-test analysis of principals and the students on the influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

The result of the analysis shows that, there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and the students on the level of influence of economic status of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone. This was so because the calculated t-test of 0.74 was less than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance and degree of freedom 186.

The t-test analysis of principals and the students on the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing

The result of the analysis shows that, there is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and the students on the influence of education of parents on the academic achievement of nursing students in the School of nursing in Anambra South zone. This was so because the calculated t-test of 0.79 was less than the critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 level of significance and degree of freedom 186.

Conclusion

The family size may contribute positively or negatively to influence the behavior of its members. However, children from large families are found to do worse than children from small families. The family type that a child comes from either monogamous or polygamous family determines the size of the family and usually has impact on the child academic performance. Children’s attainment depends on inputs of time, attention, resource and money from their parents: therefore the more children there are in the family the less of these inputs. This tends to put children from larger families to have lower levels of education. Well qualified and educated parents can better understand the educational needs, their children’s aptitude and tendency in any subject for future settlement. They can help their children in their early education in better way which affects their proficiency in their relative area of knowledge. Parents’ education is such a motivating force for a child which paves the way for his/her future. It is an admitted fact that the children of educated parents are more confident, resourceful and experienced than the children whose parents lack education. Parent educational status is considered one of the most stable aspects of Socio Economic Status (SES) because it is typically established at an early age and tends to remain the same over time.  

Implication of the Study

The findings of this study have serious implication on the influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing in Anambra south zone of Anambra state. However, there is bound to be high students academic achievement if parents with large families  pay their children school fees, students feel secured in school, a good access road to the school is available, tutors take responsibility  of teaching in rural areas and families are able to pay school fees on time. However, a well planned school would bring about the expected objectives of the education system and in addition, facilitate good sense of belonging among students and teachers, equip teachers for effective teaching and learning and also improve on the academic achievement of the students.

Recommendations

  1. Parents should improve their income so as to be able to provide the necessary reading material to their children.
  2. Illiterate parents should be encouraged to go to school, in that their literacy will enhance their children academic achievement in schools.
  3. Parents should encourage their children to read and do their home work at home rather than spending their time on things that will not benefit them academically.
  4. The school authority should provide school buses for the students so that it can aid the students from far and near to have seamless access to the school.
  5. Government should help to bring schools closer to the parents by establishing more number of schools in the various localities in the study area.

Limitations of the Study 

The major limitation of this study was the difficulty encountered trying to cover the sampled areas and getting data from the various nursing schools. However, the accuracy of results obtained from the data depended largely on the truthfulness of the information gathered in the field and the responses as answered. The study was limited to 7 nursing schools with their principals and 603 year two nursing students in the school of nursing in Anambra south zone.

Suggestions for Further Studies

  1. Study on influence of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing in Anambra state.
  2. Study on the impact of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in urban and rural school of nursing in Anambra state.
  3. Study on assessment of home environmental factors on the academic achievement of students in the school of nursing in Anambra state.

REFERENCES

Abubakar R. B. (2010) Age and Gender as Determinants of Academic Achievements in College Mathematics. Asian Journal of Natural Applied Sciences, 1(2):121-127.

Adamu, A. U. (2015). Educational reforms in Nigeria. Retrieved Feb 2011 from http://www.kanoonline.com/publications/educational_reform_in_nigeria.htm

Adams, C. (2011). Re-envisioning nursing education and practice in Nigeria for the 21st century. Open Journal of Nursing, 2, 226-230.               https://doi.org/10.4236/ojn.2012.23035

Adeyemi, T. O. (2014) The Influence of Class Size on the Quality of Output in Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 3(1):7-14.

Adu, M. R. & Olatundun, S. (2017). A Comparative Study of the Factors Affecting the Male And Female Students’ Academic Performance In Higher Education (A Case Of Government College University, Lahore). European Scientific Journal, 11(7): 429-436.

Ahmed, T. M. (2011). Education and National Development in Nigeria. Journal of Studies in Education.10:35—46. 

Akem, J.A. (2018). Continuous assessment: A practical handbook for schools. Makurdi: Selfers academic press limited.

Astone, N. M. & Mclanahan, S. S. (2019). Family structure, parental practices and high school completion. American sociological Review, 56, 309-320.

Ayandiran, E.O (2013). Education reform in Nigreia: How responsive is the nursing profession. International journal of nursing education scholarship    doi. Retrieved 11th July, 2021.

Ayodele, J.B. (2017). The Role of the Head Teachers in School Plant Management and Maintenance. In Fagbamiye E.O., Babaloja J.B, Fabunmi M and Ayemi A.O. Management of Primary and Secondary Education in Nigeria. Ibadan: NAEAP. 93 – 100.

Adeyemi, A., M. & Adeyemi, S.B. (2014). Institutional factors as predictors of students’ academic achievement in colleges of education in south western Nigeria. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 6(8), 141-153. Retrieved on 2nd September 2014 from http://www.academicjournals.org/IJEAPS

Afolabi, C. (2010). Re-envisioning nursing education and practice in Nigeria for   the 21st century. Open Journal of Nursing, 2, 226-230.          https://doi.org/10.4236/ojn.2012.23035.

Ajeh, W. (2011). A structural model of self-concept, autonomous motivation and academic performance in cross-cultural perspective. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10(4), 551-572. Retieved on 13th October 2021 from: www.investigacion-psicopedagogica.org/revista/pdf

Ali, M. (2014).Computer vocabulary look-up behaviour of three adult university  students with different English language abilities. In Z.Abas et al (Eds),   Proceedings of Global Learn Asia Pacific 2010.Pp3355-3364. Retrieved   April 10 2014 from http://www.editlib,org/p/34405

Animba, L. (2012). What teachers really need to know about formative assessment.  Alex-andria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Ayodele, J.B. (2017). The Role of the Head Teachers in School Plant Management and Maintenance. In Fagbamiye E.O., Babaloja J.B, Fabunmi M and Ayemi        A.O. Management of Primary and Secondary Education in Nigeria. Ibadan: NAEAP. 93 – 100

Baadjies, L. (2014). Self-concept and academic achievement of Grade 9 pupils. An unpublished M.Ed Disseration submitted to University of Johannesburg, South Africa.

Balogun, A.M. (2013). Challenges of higher education in Nigeria: A manager’s     perspective. Being a paper presented at the maiden edition of the faculty of                educational annual lecture series, University of Ado-Ekiti, March 22nd.

Benbow, C. P. & Arjmand, O. (2015). Predictors of high academic achievement in   mathematics and science by mathematics and science by mathematics talented   students. A longitudinal Study of Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 (3),        430-441.

Bloom, B.S (2009). Salability and change in human characteristics. New York John Wiley and Sons.

Booth, M.L & Okely, A.D. (2015). Promoting physical activity among children and adolescents: The strengths and limitations of school-based approaches. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 16, 52-54.

Booth, D. & Kee, L. (2019). Family Environment and Educational Attainment of  Some School Children in Western Nigeria. Journal of the Science Teachers  Association of Nigeria,46 (2), 107-116.

Bysenk, U.T. & Locksoh, W.T. (2011).Family characteristics and students’  academic performance in English language.Journal of education 6 (2) 114- 122.

Buchan, J. (2015). Quality teaching: Means for its enhancement? Australian         Universities’ Review, 53(1), 66–72.

Casey, M. (2017). Strategies for Managing Educational Facilities. CAE International Symposium Baltimore, Maryland.

Chudi, O. N. (2012). The effect of different learning styles on developing writing skills of EFL Saudi learners. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 5(2), 220-233.

Coetzee .L. R. (2011). The Relationship between students’ academic self-concept,           motivation and academic achievement. M.ED  dissertation submitted to the           University of South Africa. Retrieved on 12th September 2014 from http:/dissertation_coetzee_l.pdf

Collins, A.I. (2017). Social Studies for Primary Schools. Ibadan: University Press Ltd.

Dave, P.N & Dave J.P. (2017). Socio- economic environment as related to the non- verbal intelligence of rank and failed student. Individual Study: university of Mysco-re.

Durojaiye, Y. (2012). Influence of parent-child interaction on the academic achievement of their children. West African Journal of Education. 18 (2),        44-56.

Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. (2010). Influence of age, financial status, and gender on academic performance among undergraduates. B.Sc.  project submitted to the department of Counseling Psychology, Delta State University, Abraka,    Nigeria.

Edafe, S. A. (2019). Analysis of nursing education in Ghana:Priorities for scaling           up the nursing workforce. Nursing & Health Sciences, 15(2), 244-249.                https://doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12026.

Ekanem, T.F. (2014). The School as a Substitute Home. Calabar: Bon Ltd.

Eristwhistle, C.A. (2016).Changing patterns in family structure: The plight of children in Nigerian schools: Ibadan: Macmillan Nigeria publishers Ltd.

Eyibe, B.O. (2016) Impact of Resource Materials on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students. An Unpublished undergraduate B.Sc (ED) project of University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Eze E. (2012). U.M.E. Scores as a predictor of final cumulative grade point average of final year students FHST UNEC. An MSc Diseertation submitted       to the department of Nursing Sciences, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus.

Eze E. (2018). U.M.E. Scores as a predictor of final cumulative grade point average of final year students FHST UNEC. An MSc Diseertation submitted to the department of Nursing Sciences, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus.

Ezema, T.O. (2016).The place of information and communication technology (ICT) in the teaching of Igbo language. A paper presented on the 4 th Annual Congress and Conference of Igbo Studies Association held from 16 -19 September, 2008 at Prince Alexandra Auditorium, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN).

Ezewu, E. E. (2014). Correlates of Students’ Academic Performance in Public Examination at Secondary School in Oyo Students of Enquiring at the       University of Lapers. Journal of Applied Refresh in Education 1(1), 15 – 24.

Fazel M (2014). Mental health interventions in schools, The Lancet Psychiatry, page. 377-387.

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013). National Policy on Education.6th edition Lagos: NERDC Press, Yaba, Lagos- Nigeria

Gagne, L.E (2017). Challenges of Rural America in the 21st century. Pennsylvania: state University Press.

Harison, A.F. (2013). Issues in Nigeria Politics and Government: A Comprehensive Approach to citizenship Education in Nigeria. Idah: Aquara     and Co.

Haveman, R. J. & Wolfe, B. (2015). Childhood events and circumstances   influencing high school completion. Demography, 28 (1),133-157

Hudson, J. B. (2011). The long-term performance and retention of preparatory  division transfer students: 1983-1990. (ERIC Document Reproduction  Services No. ED 334 918)

Jencks, C., Smith, M., Acland, H., Bane, M., Cohen, D., & Gintis, H.(2012).         Inequality: A Reassessment of the Effect of Family and Schooling in         America. New York: Basic Books.

Johnson, D C. (2011). Quality of sleep in patients with chronic kidney disease. domain wise quality of sleep of patients undergoing Hemodialysis before and after acupressure. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. Retrieved  from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14671044

John Locke (1917). Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed    Approaches. London: SAGE Publications.

Katsillis, J., & Rubson. (2019).”Cultural Capital, Student Achievement an         Educational Reproduction: The case of Greece”: American Sociology         Review. 55 (2), 270- 279.

Kessler, D. (2013). Patterns of family interaction and children’s behavioural           outcomes. Johannesburg: Victory press Ltd.

Kingdom, B. I. (2017). Age and Gender as Determinants of Academic      Achievements in College Mathematics. Asian Journal of Natural & Applied       Sciences, 1(2):121-127.

Krashen, S. (2013). Explorations in language Acquisition and use. Portsmouth,          NH: Heinemann.

Kyoshaba, M. (2019). Factors affecting academic performance of undergraduate              students at Uganda Christian University, MED Thesis, University of     Makerere.

Lawrence, A. (2012). School Environment and Academic Achievement of              Standard IX Students.  Journal of  Educational and Instructional Studies in                 the World. 2(3), 15-21.

Maiyo, G. & Ashioy, I. (2013). School facility conditions and student academic achievement. Retrieved October 10, 2021, from http://www.idea.gseis.ucla.edu/publications/williams/reports/ pdfs/wws08-  Earthman.pdf.

Mayer, K. (2012). Postmodern pedagogy and the nursing curriculum: Collaborating for excellence. Collegian, 12, 36-40

Mgbodile, T.O. (2014). Fundamentals in Educational Administration Enugu. Magnet Business Enterprises.

Nwangwu, N.A. (2010). Universal primary education: Issues, problems and prospects. Benin City: Ethiop Publishers.

Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria [NMCN]. (2016). Standards of nursing                education and practice in Nigeria. Abuja: NMCN

Obanya, E. (2019). Imperative role in the formation and strengening of nurses both in the educational and clinical setting globally. Retrieved. 11th July, 2021. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/312901190-                nursing.education.in.nigeria

Obeta A. O (2014). Home environmental factors affecting students’ academic    performance in Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Counseling Psychology, Vol. 4 (1), pp.84- 87.

Obioha, A. I., (2012).  The quality of teacher education in Nigeria; Emergent  issues in Nigeria Education. Nigeria: University of Lagos, PP: 230-250.

Odok, A. O. (2013). Contemporary family structures and students’ academic         performance in secondary schools in IkomLocal Government Area, Cross         River State. Journal of Sociology 4 (4) 87-94

Odufowokan, Z. C. (2017). A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing          education.         Nurse Education Today, 33(3), 236-240.          https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.01.007

Okafor, F.C. (2016). Philosophy of Education and third World Perspective.            Brunswick Publishing Company.

Okobia, E. O. (2014).  Evaluating Social Studies Teachers’ Perception of Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum. European Journal of Educational Studies 3(2), 303-309.

Okafor, H. C. & C. N. Ugwuegbulam, (2012). Adolescent psychology. Published and printed by Joe Mankpa’s Publisher 18/20 mere street           Owerri, Imo State.

Okonkwo, M. E. (2017). Repositioning Social Studies for Women Empowerment.              Journal of Social Studies 15(1), 182-195.

Olakan, S., Osakinle, B., &Onijingin, U. (2013). Home make-up and child  development. Lagos: Babatunde publishing house.

Onyejiaka, F. (2013). Assessment and examination: Pathways to educational development. An Inaugural lecture presented to University of Ado-Ekiti on 21 August 2003. Retrieved on 15th August 2014 from http://www.nuc.edu.ng/nucsite/File/ILS%202003.pdf

Osakwe, R. N. (2016). Understanding teaching profession. Benin City: Osasu Printing Press.

Osibe M.N. (2013). Educational History and Practices. Uzizi Printing Press, New Haven, Enugu.

Perry, D. A. (2019). Science as superstition: selecting medical students. The Lancet, 376(9742), 678-679.

Pitan, C. C. (2015). Classroom Skills for Nurse Educators. Ontario, Canada: Jones                & Bartlett Learning.

Powell &Stellman (2010).Maintaining stability in the family: Merits and demerits.  London: Preston Press Ltd.

Runciman,  S .A and Holloway, S. (2018). The relationship of day care quality of   children’s free play Behaviour and social problem-solving skills. Early childhood research quartenay.

Singh, G. I. (2013). Review of research on the relationship between school buildings, student achievement, and student behavior. Paper presented at annual meeting of the Council of Educational Facilities       Planners, Dallas,  Texas.

Sirin, S. R. (2015). Socioeconomic status and academic achievement: A Meta         Analytic Review of Research. Review of Educational Research, 75 (3), 417-       453.

Stone (2012).Changing patterns in family structure: The plight of children in         Nigerian schools. Ibadan: Macmillan Nigeria publishers Ltd.

Tan, J.& Yates, F. (2017). Practical guide to a successful project or thesis in         writing and            defence. Owerri: Whyte and Whyte Publishers.

Ukwuije, R..P.I (2019). Educational Measurement and Evaluation for       Teachers. Ibadan Key Publishers Ltd.

Umar, S., Shaib,I.,  Aituisi,D., Yakubu, N. & Bada, O. (2010). The effect of social   factors on students’ academic performance in Nigerian Tertiary Institution. Available online at http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/umar-shaib-aituisi-yakubu-                bada.html.

Umeh, C.C. (2013). The advent and growth of television broadcasting in Nigeria:               Its political and educational overtones. Africa Media Review, 3(2): 54-66

Unigwe, S.C. (2018). Fundamentals of Human Learning. Annyco Publishers,                         Umunze, Anambra State.

Williams, T.J. (2017). School work and career, seventeen years olds in Astralia.          ACER Research Monograph No. 6. Hawthorn Victoria: ACER.